Senin, 21 Oktober 2013


Piaget divided cognitive development of children into 4 main periods that correlate with and increasingly sophisticated with age :
1 . Sensory motor period ( age 0-2 years )
2 . Preoperational period ( 2-7 years old )
3 . Concrete operational period ( ages 7-11 years )
4 . Formal operational period ( ages 11 years to adult )
1 . Sensorimotor period
According to Piaget , infants born with some innate reflexes as well as encouragement to explore his world . Scheme was initially formed through differentiation of the congenital reflexes . Sensorimotor is of four periods of the first period . Piaget argues that this stage marks the development of essential spatial abilities and understanding of the six sub - stages :
a. Sub-stage of reflex scheme , appearing at birth until the age of six weeks and is associated primarily with reflex .
b . Sub-stage of primary circular reactions phase , from the age of six weeks to four months and is associated primarily with the emergence of habits .
c . Sub stages of secondary circular reactions phase , appearing between the ages of four to nine months and is associated primarily with the coordination between vision and meaning .
d . Sub-stage  of coordination secondary circular reactions , emerged from the age of nine to twelve months , while the development of the ability to see objects as something permanent though it looks different when viewed from different angles ( object permanence ) .
e . Sub-stage of tertiary circular reactions phase , appearing at the age of twelve to eighteen months and is associated primarily with the discovery of new ways to achieve goals .
f . Early stages of the sub-symbolic representations , associated primarily with the early stages of creativity .
2 . preoperational stages
This stage is the second stage of the four stages . By observing the order of play , Piaget was able to demonstrate that the age of two years after the end of a qualitatively new kind of psychological functioning appears . Thought ( Pre ) operations in Piaget's theory is the procedure for performing a mental act against objects . The hallmark of this stage is a rare mental operations and logically inadequate . In this stage , children learn to use and represent objects by images and words . Thinking is still egocentric : child difficulty to see the perspective of others. Child can classify objects using one characteristic , such as collecting all the red objects although different shape or round object while collecting all the different colors .
According to Piaget , the pre-operational stage following the sensory motor stage and appear between the ages of two to six years . In this stage , children develop the skills of what language is . They began to represent objects with words and images . However , they still use intuitive reasoning is not logical . In the beginning stages of this , they tend to be egocentric , i.e. , they are not able to understand his place in the world and how they relate to one another . They have difficulty understanding how the feelings of those around him . But as maturation , the ability to understand other people's perspectives , the better . Children have a very imaginative mind at the moment and consider any non-living objects have feelings too .
3 . Concrete operational stages
This stage is the third stage of the four stages . Appear between the ages of six to twelve years and is characterized in the form of an adequate use of logic . Important processes during this stage are :
- Ability to organize sorting objects by size , shape , or other characteristics . For example , if given different-sized objects , they can rank them from most large objects into the smallest .
Classification - the ability to name and identify a set of objects according to appearance, size , or other characteristics , including the idea that a set of objects can include other objects into the circuit . Children no longer have the form of logic constraints animism ( the notion that all living things and callous )
Decentering - son began to consider some aspects of a problem to be solve . For example, the child will no longer perceive a wide but short cup contents less than a small cup high .Reversibility - the child begins to understand that the amount or objects can be changed , then returned to its initial state . To that end , children can quickly determine that the 4 +4 equals 8 , 8-4 will be equal to 4 , the previous amount.
Conservation - understanding that quantity , length or number of objects is not related to settings or display of objects or the objects . For example , when a child is given a cup size and a lot of the same content , they will know when water is poured into another cup size is different , the water in the glass will remain the same lot with the other contents of the cup .
Removal properties of Egocentrism - the ability to see things from another person's perspective ( even when the person is thinking the wrong way ) . For example , show the comic puppet show Siti store in the box , then left the room , then move Ujang stuffed into a drawer , after that Siti back into the room . Children in the concrete operations stage will say that Siti would still think the doll is in the box even though the child knows that the doll had been moved into the drawer by Ujang .

4 . Formal operational stages

Formal operational stage is the last period in Piaget's theory of cognitive development . This stage starts experienced by children in the age of eleven years ( puberty ) and continues into adulthood. Characteristics of this stage is to obtain the ability to think abstractly , reason logically , and draw conclusions from the information available . In this stage , one can understand things like love, logical proof , and value. He does not see things only in black and white , but there are " shades of gray" in between. Seen from biological factors , this phase appears at puberty ( when there is a large variety of other changes ) , marks the entry into the world of adult physiological , cognitive , moral reasoning , psychosexual development , and social development . Some people do not fully achieve progress to this stage , so they don’t have the skills to think as an adult and still use the reasoning of the concrete operational stage .

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