Senin, 21 Oktober 2013

Abraham Maslow’s Motivation Theory (1943-1970)

           Abraham Maslow is known as the pioneer of humanistic psychology stream. Maslow believed that humans are driven to understand and accept her as much as possible. His theory is very famous Hierarchy of Needs theory or Hierarchy of Needs. Family life and life experiences influence psychological notion of the idea. After World War II, Maslow began to question how psychologists psychologist earlier about the human mind. Although not entirely deny, but he had his own ideas to understand the way humans think.        
           Humanist psychologists believe that every person has a strong desire to realize the potential of the potential in him, to achieve the level of self-actualization. To prove that humans are not just react to the situation around him, but to achieve something greater, Maslow studied a person with a healthy mental state, rather than studying a person with mental health problems. This illustrates that the new man can experience "peak experiences" when the man in harmony with himself and his surroundings. In Maslow's view, human beings actualize himself, may have many peaks of human experience that is less than actualize himself.
           Abraham Maslow (1943-1970) argued that essentially all humans have basic needs. He showed it in 5 levels of the pyramid, the bottom level of encouragement from the start. Five levels of needs was known as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, starting from basic biological needs to psychological motives are more complex, which will be important only after basic needs are met. Needs at least one rank must be met in part before the needs of the next rank to be an important determinant of action.         

a.Physicologycal needs (hunger, thirst , and so on)    
b.Safety needs (feel safe and protected , away from danger)
c.Belongingness and love needs (affiliated with others, be accepted, have)         
d.Esteem needs (achievement, competence, and gain support and recognition)
e.Self-actualization needs (cognitive needs: to know, understand, and explore; aesthetic needs: harmony, order, and beauty; need for self-actualization: self gratification and realize their potential)   

           When food and security are difficult to obtainthe fulfillment of these needs will dominate one's actions and motives higher will be less significantPeople will only have the time and energy to pursue the aesthetic and intellectual interestsif their basic needs are to be met with easeWorks of art and scientific work will not flourish in a society whose members are still working very hard to find foodshelterand securitySo a little explanation of Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation.

Abraham H. Maslow., 1986. Farther Reaches of Human NatureNew YorkOrbis Book
Sarlito W. Sarwono., 2002.
 Berkenalan dengan Aliran-aliran dan Tokoh-tokoh PsikologiJakarta: Bulan Bintang         

Sobur, Alex, Drs. M.Sc. (2003). Psikologi Umum. Bandung: Pustaka Setia.

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