Selasa, 22 Oktober 2013

CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy)

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy...
is a form of psychotherapy that emphasizes the important role of
thinking in how we feel and what we do.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy does not exist as a distinct therapeutic
technique. The term "cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)" is a very
general term for a classification of therapies with similarities.  There
 are several approaches to cognitive-behavioral therapy, including
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, Rational Behavior Therapy, Rational
Living Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Dialectic Behavior Therapy.

However, most cognitive-behavioral therapies have the following

1. CBT is based on the Cognitive Model of Emotional Response.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts
cause our feelings and behaviors, not external things, like people,
situations, and events.  The benefit of this fact is that we can change
the way we think to feel / act better even if the situation does not

 2. CBT is Briefer and Time-Limited.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is considered among the most rapid in terms
of results obtained.  The average number of sessions clients receive
(across all types of problems and approaches to CBT) is only 16.  Other
forms of therapy,  like psychoanalysis, can take years.  What enables
CBT to be briefer is its highly instructive nature and the fact that it
makes use of homework assignments.  CBT is time-limited in that we help
clients understand at the very beginning of the therapy process that
there will be a point when the formal therapy will end.  The ending of
the formal therapy is a decision made by the therapist and client. 
Therefore, CBT is not an open-ended, never-ending process.

3. A sound therapeutic relationship is necessary for effective therapy,
but not the focus.
Some forms of therapy assume that the main reason people get better in
therapy is because of the positive relationship between the therapist
and client.  Cognitive-behavioral therapists believe it is important to
have a good,     trusting relationship, but that is not enough.  CBT
therapists believe that the clients change because they learn how to
think differently and they act on that learning.  Therefore, CBT
therapists focus on teaching rational self-counseling

4. CBT is a collaborative effort between the therapist and the client.
 Cognitive-behavioral therapists seek to learn what their clients want
out of life (their goals) and then help their clients achieve those
goals.  The therapist's role is to listen, teach, and encourage, while
the client's roles is to express     concerns, learn, and implement that

For excellent cognitive-behavioral therapy self-help and professional
books, audio presentations, and home-study training programs, please
click here.

5. CBT is based on aspects of stoic philosophy.
Not all approaches to CBT emphasize stoicism.  Rational Emotive Behavior
 Therapy, Rational Behavior Therapy, and Rational Living Therapy
emphasize aspects of stoicism.  Beck's Cognitive Therapy is not based on

Cognitive-behavioral therapy does not tell people how they should feel.
 However, most people seeking therapy do not want to feel they way they
have been feeling. The approaches that emphasize stoicism teach the
benefits of     feeling, at worst, calm when confronted with undesirable
 situations.  They also emphasize the fact that we have our undesirable
situations whether we are upset about them or not.  If we are upset
about our problems, we have two     problems -- the problem, and our
upset about it.  Most people want to have the fewest number of problems
possible.  So when we learn how to more calmly accept a personal
problem, not only do we feel better, but we usually put     ourselves in
 a better position to make use of our intelligence, knowledge, energy,
and resources to resolve the problem.

6. CBT uses the Socratic Method.
Cognitive-behavioral therapists want to gain a very good understanding
of their clients' concerns.  That's why they often ask questions.  They
also encourage their clients to ask questions of themselves, like, "How
do I really know that those people are laughing at me?"  "Could they be
laughing about something else?"

7. CBT is structured and directive.
Cognitive-behavioral therapists have a specific agenda for each session.
 Specific techniques / concepts are taught during each session.  CBT
focuses on the client's goals.  We do not tell our clients what their
goals "should" be, or what they "should" tolerate.  We are directive in
the sense that we show our clients how to think and behave in ways to
obtain what they want. Therefore, CBT therapists do not tell their
clients what to do -- rather, they teach their clients how to do.

8. CBT is based on an educational model.
CBT is based on the scientifically supported assumption that most
emotional and behavioral reactions are learned.  Therefore, the goal of
therapy is to help clients unlearn their unwanted reactions and to learn
 a new way of reacting.

Therefore, CBT has nothing to do with "just talking".  People can "just
talk" with anyone.

The educational emphasis of CBT has an additional benefit -- it leads to
 long term results.  When people understand how and why they are doing
well, they know what to do to continue doing well.

9. CBT theory and techniques rely on the Inductive Method.
A central aspect of Rational thinking is that it is based on fact.
Often, we upset ourselves about things when, in fact, the situation
isn't like we think it is.  If we knew that, we would not waste our time
 upsetting ourselves.

Therefore, the inductive method encourages us to look at our thoughts as
 being hypotheses or guesses that can be questioned and tested.  If we
find that our hypotheses are incorrect (because we have new
information), then we      can change our thinking to be in line with
how the situation really is.

10. Homework is a central feature of CBT.
If when you attempted to learn your multiplication tables you spent only
 one hour per week studying them, you might still be wondering what 5 X 5
 equals.  You very likely spent a great deal of time at home studying
your multiplication tables, maybe with flashcards.

The same is the case with psychotherapy.  Goal achievement (if obtained)
 could take a very long time if all a person were only to think about
the techniques and topics taught was for one hour per week.  That's why
CBT therapists assign reading assignments and encourage their clients to
 practice the techniques learned.

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