Senin, 21 Oktober 2013

6 The Age of Faith Development Phase

Like it or not , talk of religion will always attract a lot of people , ranging from the orthodox and fundamentalist to moderate and liberal . From the discussion , it will usually be seen how his religious faith in his Lord anyone . There are strict rules hold ; deviations and additions mean perverted , pagan , or go to hell without mercy . On the other hand , some are impressed with the cool ritual for them , what matters is the golden rule : Treat others ( well ) we want to be treated like everyone else ( well anyway ) .Why can there are various forms of appreciation of the faith ? According to James Fowler , a theologian , an environmental factor or factors ' guidance ' / ' gift ' is not enough to explain it . Faith also is the interaction of the above factors in mind someone who has matured with age . From that understanding, he then developed a growth stage of faith from the perspective of developmental psychology .For Fowler , faith is defined as a ' way of seeing or knowing the world ' . Faith also does not have to always be drawn to a god or other creature ; faith in science , humanity , or even Jedi legitimate referred to as faith , as long as the object of faith is believed to be the most valuable (ultimate worth ) and is able to give meaning to his life .Starting with the definition , he and his colleagues from Harvard Divinity School interviewed more than 400 people by age, creed , ethnicity , educational background , and socio - economic backgrounds are diverse . The result was 6 stages of faith development from beginning to end one's life . The sixth stage is passed to the linear , meaning that the next phase can only be achieved after completion of the previous stage . However , the picture of life in every stage just a rough estimate ; transition to the next stage is usually triggered by a new experience , a crisis , or enlightenment which shook the faith . Because of this , many people who never left his life of a particular stage , although some are able to pass through certain stages before reaching age 'should ' .Phase 1 : Intuitive - projective faith ( ages 18-24 months to 7 years )At the time of this ' faith ' children gained a lot of what adults tell . From the stories that they form a picture of the mighty God , the imaginative heaven , and hell is terrible . The general picture is irrational , because at this age children do not understand cause and effect and have not been able to separate reality and fantasy . They also still difficult to distinguish God's perspective with their viewpoint or parents . The concept of God is believed in this age range in compliance ( obedience ) and punishment (punishment ) .Stage 2 : Mythic - literal faith ( ages 7 to 12 years old )Children are more logical and outlook will begin to develop a more orderly universe . Although he followed the beliefs and rituals of parents and the community , they tend to believe the story and religious symbols literally because at this age children are not able to think abstractly. On the other hand , they have to understand that God has a different perspective to the business and takes into account the person's intentions before the ' judge ' . They believe that God is just in giving appropriate rewards for humans .Stage 3 : Synthetic - conventional faith ( adolescence and subsequent )Once able to think abstractly , adolescents begin to form ideologies ( belief systems ) and a commitment to certain ideals . In this period they began to search for identity and personal relationship with God . But their identities have not been completely formed , so they are also still seeing other people ( usually peers) for moral guidance . Their faith can not be questioned , and in accordance with the standards of the community . This stage is generally found on the followers of organized religion ; approximately 50 percent of adults may not be past this stage .Stage 4 : Individuative - reflective faith ( early to mid twenties )They were able to reach this stage begin to critically examine their faith and rethink their beliefs , regardless of any external authority and group norms . At this stage the problem of young people generally associated with a life partner , so moving to this stage can be triggered by divorce , death of a friend , or other events that cause stress .Stage 5 : conjunctive faith ( mid-life )At middle age , people become increasingly aware of the limits of his wits . They understand the paradoxes and contradictions in life , and often face a conflict between the need to satisfy ourselves with the sacrifice for others . When it began to anticipate death , they can reach deeper understanding and acceptance , which is integrated with the faith that they had before .Stage 6 : Universalizing faith (elderly )In the last stage that can rarely be achieved , there are moral and spiritual leaders , such as Mahatma Gandhi , Martin Luther King , and Mother Teresa , whose vision and commitment to humanity touched so many people . They are driven by a desire to " participate in a force that unites and change the world " , but remain humble , simple , and humane . Because often threatening power , they often become martyrs , and even love life , they are not tied to it .Criticism and LimitationsAs a preliminary findings ( if not to say pioneers ) in the areas of faith development , then there is natural that some criticism of Fowler research that has resulted in this stage . Of the sampling process , the study subjects more representative of the population Fowler western cultured with intelligence and a pretty good education . On those who are excluded, particularly non - western civilized society , this result should be tested further . In addition , the definition of ' faith ' is used somewhat differently Fowler of a more general sense that more emphasis acceptance of introspection rather than cognitive . He was also criticized for the faith of the simple and undeniable as immature faith .Despite all the criticisms and limitations , the stages of faith development efforts should be appreciated . In the midst of an aggressive attack from some scientists who think religion and faith in God as a mental illness , delusions , or schizophrenia , Fowler is the initial effort of many advanced research conducted by psychological scientists to reconcile science and religion .Reference :Papalia , D. E. , Olds , S. W. , & Feldman , R. D. ( 2007) . Human Development : Tenth Edition . New York : McGraw - Hill .

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