Senin, 16 Desember 2013

Piaget's stages of Cognitive Development

It is the characteristic of a human being to evolve over time . Whether it be biological , physiological , and psychological socialist . Similarly, the cognitive development of each individual , will have growth as well . While still in early stages of normal development . Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a scientist and leader psychology who are concerned about the development of human cognition throughout life span. In its own development , not only by psychological factors that influence the development of individual cognition , but they are biological factors also influence each other . Pieget also noted the two major principles in human cognitive development , namely organization and adaptation . ( Solso , 2007 )
The principle here is the nature of the organization of mental structures and inter- tiered stages and relate with each other . According to Piaget's view , a person's mental ability and cognition is a relationship that is organized or structured with very complex and complementary . The most basic structure is the mental schemes which , although still a bit abstract but it has been entered within the organizing structure . Increasingly, there developed schemes that and more organized and coordinated with each other to form patterns more regular and it makes the mind more and more mature and adult . The second principle is adaptation . Which is based on the principle of adaptation assimilation process ; acquiring information from outside and combine it with information we have seen before , and accommodation ; old information processing and information processing in the new object from the outside .
And the most famous of Piaget's developmental theory of cognition is the whole pool of human life is divided into four stages . In each stage , a normal person's cognitive abilities will grow and mature . Because it is the result of two principles above earlier ; organization and adaptation , which makes any information and knowledge gained becomes increasingly complex and complement each other . So in its development , the longer a person's cognitive ability is getting more mature . The first stage is the stage of Sensory - motor , with a range of developmental age between 0 to 2 years . Characteristics of cognitive development at this stage is dominated by reflex movements obtained from the sensor senses . And in this case or the mindset that there is still an abstract scheme and rely on reflex alone . Individuals not recognize objective reality that is around.
Continues to the next stage , namely Pre - operational , between the ages of 2-7 years . At this stage a child can begin to think about something , but still have not been able to develop patterns of thought . His mind is egocentrism , which is still not able to see or look at a case from the viewpoint of others . These children will perceive only they knew it. Language development starts to become perfect . Begins with an understanding of the language and symbols of others. Although the patterns of thought has begun to evolve , but the ability to think logically is still not very mature anyway , because it is still dominated by their intuition . Switching level to the next stage , ie - concrete operational stage contained in the age range 7-11 years . According to Piaget at this stage there are three important aspects in one's intellectual growth , namely : conservation , classification , and transitivity . Conservation is the ability to transfer the properties of an object to another object . Classification is the ability to categorize or classify an object with other objects that have a certain similarity . While transitivity is the ability to assemble multiple elements according to certain relations . From here also , come further reasoning on the figures . The ability to count and increased logic .
Fourth and final stage of stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development is Operational - formal.Kognisi someone has been able to think universally , that is not fixated on one aspect and started waning nature of egocentrism . So someone already started thinking of various kinds of point of view, not only of himself alone in understanding the various problems . Being able to make the allegations more structured and organized . Reality is acceptable and understood further . The ability to think logically mature , not only on an object that looked just reality . Abstract thought is also growing more complex . So this , it is able to help children think more creative and innovative again . The ability to think scientifically developed also begin at this stage . ( Solso , 2007)
Study - level cognitive development Piaget described above is very helpful for us to know and learn about human development over the life span. If we know each development task , we can further maximize and optimize return what we can accomplish and we get it from every stage of development . No other is to be able to understand the deeper it will live . Apart from the above purposes , we also can learn about various irregularities re - penyimpanggan mental and cognition during the span of human life . To make it easier for the prevention and healing back on a wide range of mental disorders as well as one's cognition .

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