Kamis, 19 Desember 2013

Depression, silvia nur millah 12410212

Depression is a mental disorder that every person has an opportunity to experience it. Many of us are confused to distinguish between depression, stress and sadness. Not to mention distinguish some types of depression, such as unipolar depression, biological depression, manic depression, seasonal affective disorder, dysthymia, and others. There are so many terms used to describe depression. Now we know what time it is depressed, with the goal of easing someone or yourself when depressed.
Causes of Depression

Some experts also shed light on the causes of depression. According to Kaplan in Tarin (2003) Factors associated with the causes can be divided into: biological factors, genetic factors and psycho-social factors. Where these three factors can also influence each other

1.Biological factors
In the study biopsychology, norepinephrine and serotonin are two neurotransmitters that play a role in the pathophysiology of most mood disorders. Some researchers also found that mood disorders involving pathological and limbiks system and basal ganglia and hypothalamus.

2. Genetic factors
Genetic Data states that a significant factor in the development of mood disorders are genetic. In twins study on major depressive disorder, in monozygotic twins is 50%, whereas dizygotic 10-25%

. 3. Psychosocial factors
Perhaps these factors are widely studied by psychologists. Memyebabkan psychosocial factors of depression, among others;

• Life events and environmental stress : a clinical observation stating that the incident or incidents in a life full of tension often precede episodes of mood disorders .
• premorbid personality factors : There is no one personality or the personality of the particular form of a predisposition to depression . Everyone with any personality traits may experience depression , although tipetipe like oral dependent personality , obsession compulsive , histrionic have a substantial risk of depression compared to the other .
• Factors Psychoanalytic and Psychodynamic : Freud expresses a relationship between object loss and melancholia . He stated that the depressed patient anger directed at myself for identifying the missing object . Freud believed that the ego introjection is a way to escape the lost object . depression as an effect that can do something about the aggression that is directed into himself . When depressed patients realize that they do not live up to the aspired - citakannya , will lead them to despair.

• Learned helplessness : In experiments , in which animals are repeatedly confronted with an electric shock that can not be avoided , the animal finally gave up and did not try at all to avoid the next shock . They learn that they are not helpless .
Cognitive Theory: Beck show concern cognitive impairment in depression Asikal HS in Tarin (2003) He identifies three major cognitive patterns in depression which is called the cognitive triad, namely: a) a negative view of the future, b) negative view of self, the individual considers himself incapable, stupid, lazy, worthless, c) negative view on life experience. Meyer argues that depression is a reaction of a person's life experience
The causes of depression are biological factors, genetic factors and psycho social factors. Where these three factors can also influence each other.
Symptoms of Depression

• Feelings of hopelessness and pessimism.
• Feelings of guilt, worthlessness and helplessness.
• Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities once enjoyed.
• Decreased energy and fatigue easily.
• Kesuultan concentrating, remembering, or making decisions.
• Insomnia, early morning awakening, or oversleeping.
• Decreased appetite even greatly exaggerated. Weight loss weight gain even drastically.
• Always think of death or suicide, suicide attempts
• Restlessness and irritability
• Continuously experiencing physical symptoms that do not respond to treatment, such as headaches, digestive disorders, and chronic pain

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