Decision-making is needed when we have a problem that must be resolved satisfactorily . The problem situation that became the first input in the decision -making system . Making decisions with the knowledge , experience , and data acquired or collected related to the problem .
Here are some opinions as a basic conceptual understanding of what is actually in the decision making on the management of an organization's activities
Decision making is one of the roles is called role desisional manager ( Winarda , 1990) .
A decision is the process of choosing a particular action among a number of possible alternative actions ( Sutisna , 1985:149 )
Similarly, Drummond (1985 ) argues that decision-making is the creation of business events and the formation of the future ( the events at the time of the election and its aftermath ) .
Based on the above definition it can be concluded that the decision pengambialn is the process of solving problems with the choice of several alternatives to assign an action to achieve desired goals .
v Decision-making in the management functions include :
1 . Planning - What is the ultimate goal of the organization ? What strategies are used to achieve the goal ?
2 . Organizing - How it works fine ? How the organizational structure necessary ? Who - who will fill the jobs ?
3 . Mobilization - How to mobilize their employees to high performance ? How kepeminpinan effective in the organization ?
4 . Supervision - What activities within the organization to be supervised ? In the event of any irregularities occurred ? How to effectively move the organization ?
Each decision-making process is a system of action because there are several components in it . According Pradjudi ( 1997:45 ) , the existing framework in the decision-making system is as follows :
1 . The position of the person authorized to make decisions
2 . Problems ( deviation from what is desired and planned or intended )
3 . The situation was the decision-maker was
4 . Conditions of the decision-maker ( the strength and ability to face problems )
5 . Objectives ( what is desirable or achievable with decision making ) .
v Another opinion asserts that the decision-making steps there are six , namely :
1 . Identifying a problem
2 . Clarify and prioritize objectives
3 . Creating options
4 . Assess options
5 . Compare the predicted consequences of each option with targets
6 . Choose the option with the consequences of the targets ( Drummond , 1995:3 )
The decision is the outcome of the decision-making process . Setting options ( decide ) or a particular course of action is a decision for the organization . In general, the decision is divided into two types as follows :
1 . Strategic decisions , every organization producing policies or organizational decisions . Policies and direction of the organization is a strategic decision .
2 . Operational decisions , while operational decisions concerning the daily management of the organization . Operational decisions determine the effectiveness of the strategic decisions taken by top managers ( Drummond , 1995:13 ) .
v On the other hand , there is also a division of the types of decisions based on problems encountered , namely :
a. Decisions are programmed ( program decision)
This decision is a decision made based on the well- known problems (well - structured problems) or the problem is known.
b . The decision is not programmed ( non -programmed decision)
This decision was taken or decisions made based on issues that are not clearly known ( ill-structured problems) or less of data and information available as appropriate .
v The factors to be considered in decision-making according to Terry , namely :
a. The things that are not tangible and intangible , emotional and rational needs to be taken into account in decision making .
b . Each decision must be made of materials to achieve organizational goals .
c . Every decision should not oriented to personal interests , but should be more concerned with the interests of the organization .
d . Rarely does a satisfactory choice , therefore make alternative - counter alternative .
e . Decision making is the mental act of this action must be converted into physical action .
f . Effective decision-making requires a long time .
g . Practical decision-making required to obtain better results .
h . Every decision should be instituted in order to know the decision was correct .
i . Every decision is an act of the beginning of a series of events next chain .
Effective decision-making to be a benchmark of effective leadership as well . But effective leadership not only allow discussion among the group , but also allow them to participate in implementing the decision . If they are not involved in activities to discuss issues that are relevant to them then their participation in decision-making will not be successful .
Reference : Anzizhan & Syafaruddin . Decision Systems Education . Jakarta : Grasindo
Surbakti , Ramlan . Understanding Political Science . Jakarta : Grasindo